City Usage

Utility (unit) Est. C02e (lbs)
Electricity (kWh) 1.56396
Water (ccf) 3.58581
Natural Gas (ccf) 12.02596
Steam (lbs) 0.53369


These are the calculated CO2e emissions associated with each unit of electricity, water, gas, and steam in Duluth, based on information and estimates from local utilities and the EPA. A calculator to convert your utility data using these values is available here.

This chart depicts the breakdown of greenhouse gas emissions in tons from all City assets, including the steam plant and the water distribution system, based on the 2008 GHG inventory.

This shows the greenhouse gas emissions in pounds for electricity, natural gas, and steam in Duluth, each converted to kBTU.

  • For electricity, the estimate is based on 2015 fuel mix data from Minnesota Power
  • For steam, it is based on the steam plant’s 2016 consumption and production data, and emissions per unit fuel values from the EPA
  • For natural gas, the value is simply a calculation of emissions per unit from the EPA.

Although we also have a calculation for the carbon footprint of treating and pumping water in Duluth, it is not shown here because water cannot be converted into units of energy

Values for Minnesota and US averages come from the US Energy Information Administration.